describe athenian military training

Choose all answers that are correct. In Athens, the lochos was led by a captain (lochagos) and these combined to form one of ten regiments (taxeis) each led by a taxiarchos. Strassler, R.B. The chief military units in the ancient classical world were the Greek phalanx and Roman legion. The biggest fleet was at Athens, which could amass up to 200 triremes at its peak, and which allowed the city to build and maintain a Mediterranean-wide empire. Thermopylae in 480 BCE and Plataea in 479 BCE were battles where the hoplite phalanx proved devastatingly effective. Even if they were married they had to live in military schools until they were 30. Wheeled siege towers, first used by the Carthaginians and copied by Dionysius I of Syracuse against Motya in 397 BCE, bolt-throwing artillery (gastraphetes), stone throwing apparatus (lithoboloi) and even flame-throwers (at Delion in 424 BCE) began a trend for commanders to be more aggressive in siege warfare. Even if they were married they had to live in military schools until they were 30. NEED HELP ASAP DUE AT 11:30PM Which statements accurately describe aspects of Russia's culture and history? Spartan government was a strictly regimented military state. The young men learned between the age of 8 and 18 of several subjects such as grammar, music, and art of public speaking. This theme of Spartan military prowess is exemplified when Brasidas proceeds to impart his stern education, gained through a lifetime of institutionalized training and deprivation, to the non-Lacedaemon auxiliaries he recruits and commands. Cartwright, Mark. Armies became more cosmopolitan with the inclusion of resident foreigners, slaves, mercenaries, and neighbouring allies (either voluntary or through compulsion in the case of Sparta’s perioikoi). The Athenian Empire around 450 BC The Athenian military was the military force of Athens, one of the major city-states (poleis) of Ancient Greece. It consisted of a ruling class (Spartans), middle class, and a slave class. Cartwright, Mark. Both Athens and Sparta hold historic value for Greece and the world. Total solved problems on the site: 9145995 Get an answer to your question “How did the Spartan emphasis on military training differ from Athenian ideas on how to train young men? McNugget1 McNugget1 The Athenian education system was better and the Spartan military system was better. After the youth has completed and passed the tryout. military personnel, in contrast, required consistent management from generals whose skills they respected. The peltast warrior, armed with short javelins and more lightly-armoured than the hoplite became a mobile and dangerous threat to the slower moving hoplites. 1 Forces 1.1 Infantry 1.2 Cavalry 1.3 Navy 2 References 3 Sources The mainstay of the Athenian army, like practically all Greek armies, was the heavy armed infantry soldier, the hoplite. These sites became veritable treasuries and, effectively, museums of weapons and armour. Rod Powers. "Ancient Greek Warfare." Academic education includes military and academic courses and covers up to 50% of the curriculum. Spartan and Athenian civilizations both grew as a result of their militaries and both civilizations have had an influence on Western civilization. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 27 March 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. They were also fantastically expensive to produce and maintain; indeed the trireme was indicative that now warfare had become an expensive concern of the state, even if rich private citizens were made to fund most of the expense. The unit of the Athenian citizen army, like all other Greek armies, is the heavily armed infantry soldier called the ‘hoplite’. The officer must provide them with the discord. Athenian society was a patriarchy; men held all rights and advantages, such as access to education and power. Songs were sung (the paian - a hymn to Apollo) and both sides would advance to meet each other. Indeed, the political system known as "Athenian Democracy" was the single greatest influence on the later development of democracy in Rome, and arguably the most important historical influence upon our modern Democratic states. When all of these rituals were out of the way, fighting could commence but even then it was routine to patiently wait for the enemy to assemble on a suitable plain nearby. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Warfare in the Classical World: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Weapons... Men of Bronze: Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece. Quest … ion 68 options: Ivan III was known for defeating the Byzantines and rejecting their culture. This was done through the consultation of oracles such as that of Apollo at Delphi and through animal sacrifices (sphagia) where a professional diviner (manteis) read omens (ta hiera), especially from the liver of the victim and any unfavourable signs could certainly delay the battle. None of these quiddities has much to do with efficient military training. https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Warfare/. 1 See answer lisetteblacksmi is waiting for your help. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. However, from the 4th century BCE technical innovations gave the attackers more advantages. The army consisted of horsemen and hoplites, footsoldiers. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Spartan boys started their military training at age 7, when they left home and entered the Agoge. Kratos is an unexpectedly brutish word. In the early stages of Greek Warfare in the Archaic period, training was haphazard and even weapons could be makeshift, although soldiers were usually paid, if only so that they could meet their daily needs.There were no uniforms or insignia and as soon as the conflict was over the soldiers would return to their farms. At the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE, Theban general Epaminondas greatly strengthened the left flank of his phalanx to about 50 men deep which meant he could smash the right flank of the opposing Spartan phalanx, a tactic he used again with great success at Mantineia in 362 BCE. By the time Demosthenes was a youth Athens had more or less recovered after its major losses in the Peloponnesian Wars, but it never regained the position of power that it used to occupy in Greece at the beginning of the war. Subjects such as individual training and small infantry echelon exercises are held in co-operation with Corps of the Hellenic Armyand other branches of the Armed Forces. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer, 5 Dramatic Greek Wars Battles That Changed History Forever, Spartan forces under Cleomenes I attack the, The first fortifications are constructed at, Hoplites become increasingly lighter-armoured, as new, Athenian and Corinthian hoplites fight a street, A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the, The Athenians, led by Cleon, try to retake, Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near, Macedonians bring an army across the Isthmus to face another Achaian force trying to take. Consider doing follow-up mini-sessions a month or two after a training session, where participants can interact and talk about their experiences and challenges applying what was learned. Athenian society was a patriarchy; men held all rights and advantages, such as access to education and power. What advice does Pericles give to the parents and widows of the deceased soldiers? For a few hundred years, Sparta’s military made it a powerhouse. Decisive and devastating cavalry offensives would have to wait until the Macedonians led by Philip and Alexander in the mid-4th century BCE. Spartan military training: Spartan boys were taken from their families at the age of 6 or 7, and were sent to live in a military school until they were 30 years old. Ancient Athens was determined to produce thinkers (philosophers) and The mainstay of any Greek army was the hoplite. Young Athenian boys were tutored at home until the age of six or seven, and then they were sent to neighborhood schools for primary education until they were 14 years of age. According to Gonz’alez (2014: 14) Athens military training: in Athens, boys were sent to school to learn reading, writing, math, and other things from the age of 6 to 17. The lochoi was the basic unit of the phalanx - a line of well-armed and well-armoured hoplite soldiers usually eight to twelve men deep which attacked as a tight group. The Athenian military was the military force of Athens, one of the major city-states (poleis) of Ancient Greece. Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. They also became too tempting a target for more unscrupulous leaders in later times, but still the majority of surviving military material comes from archaeological excavations at these sites. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Warfare/. This isn’t a question that can be answered in a few paragraphs, so the following is just a generalization. Thus, a physical training system, … From the age of 7 boys were taught survival skills, how to fight, how to stealing what they needed without getting caught, and, under certain circumstances, to murder helots (slaves). At age 18, regardless of social status, all Athenian boys were required to attend military school for two years, after which they were free to live out their lives as they saw fit. The Athenian military forces were said to be the most systemised and strategic army in the history of ancient times. Spartan and Athenian women would compete in exercise and sports such as discus, gym and wrestling. Athenian soldiers were required to serve two years in the military, one in the garrison and one in a border fort. What happens to a Spartan male at age 30? (1), At age 14, poorer boys usually stopped going to school and began apprenticeships at a trade. Physical training covers 12% of the overall training and includes track and field events a… (3), Athenian girls were not officially schooled, however. -Athens: Did light labor around the house, lives similar to owners', never replaced free labor-Sparta: Helots did ALL the work so Spartans could focus on military training (so their lives were not similar to owners' and did replace free labor) One of the most major difference was military. The training of memory is a drill that is akin to that of the body and to military practice. Web. Four of these made up a lochos (regiment) of 512 men. The lowest social class of citizens in ancient Athens. Rod Powers was the U.S. Military expert for The Balance Careers and was a retired Air Force First Sergeant with 22 years of active duty service. The trireme was a light wooden ship, highly manoeuvrable and fitted with a bronze battering ram at the bow which could disable enemy vessels. The units used in modern armies include the company, battalion, brigade, and division. Athens military training: in Athens boys were sent to school to learn reading, writing, math, and other things from the age of 6 to 17. Assemblies or groups of elite citizens sanctioned war, and generals (strategoi) came to be accountable for their actions and were often elected for fixed terms or specific military operations. , Richard Crawley, Victor Davis Hanson Thucydides. Armies also became more structured, split into separate units with hierarchies of command. These schools were usually private schools, but tuition costs were low enough that even most poor Athenians could afford to send their boys to school for at least a few years. Warfare moved away from one-off battles fought in a few hours to long-drawn-out conflicts which could last for years, the most important being the Persian Wars (first half of the 5th century BCE), the Peloponnesian Wars (459-446 & 431-404 BCE), and the Corinthian Wars (394-386 BCE). This freed Spartans and Athenians up to focus on other things. Pericles, Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. Sieges were usually long-drawn-out affairs with the principal strategy being to starve the enemy into submission. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ivan the Terrible isolated Russia from the West. _____ _____ 2b: Describe Spartan military training: ... Out of this population, only adult (age 20 or older) male citizens who had completed military training possessed the right to vote. Indoctrination into this lifestyle began early. To provide greater mobility in battle the hoplite came to wear lighter armour such as a leather or laminated linen corselet (spolades) and open-faced helmet (pilos). More mobile and multi-weapon warfare now became the norm. Full Bio. Education - Education - Athens: Beginning at a date difficult to fix precisely (at the end of the 7th or during the 6th century), Athens, in contrast to Sparta, became the first to renounce education oriented toward the future duties of the soldier. Education & Military Training The primary purpose of Spartan education, and indeed of Spartan society as a whole, differed greatly from that of the Athenians. It is said to have been organised by the Theban commander Gorgidas in 378 BC and to have played a crucial role in the Battle of Leuctra. It is the job of the officer core of Hoplites - Thorakites Understands the rules and regulations of the Athenian military. Pericles (Greek: Περικλῆς, Periklēs, "surrounded by glory"; c. 495 – 429 BC) was the most prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. With their professional and well-trained full-time army dressed in red cloaks and carrying shields emblazoned with the letter lambda (for Lacedaemonians), the Spartans showed what professionalism in warfare could achieve. It was a strong system of government up until its fall. Yet, the Athenian system functioned very differently from the democracies of modern times. Javelin throwers (akonistai), archers (toxotoi) and slingers (sphendonētai) using stones and lead bullets could harry the enemy with attacks and retreats. By the time the young Athenian males turned 18, they would give their oath to the Gods of the City, and join the city's army for a two full years of basic training. In English, when you are talking about someone personality, there are some great adjectives that you can use to do this. Many states such as Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Syracuse began to maintain a small professional force (logades or epilektoi) which could be augmented by the main citizen body if necessary. A Spartan army usually consisted of five lochoi with separate units of non-citizen militia - perioikoi. List of words to describe someone in English with examples and pictures. By. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. Over the course of 24 engaging lectures, Professor Robert Garland of Colgate University unpacks the development of Athens still had a large army, but unlike Sparta it didn't concentrate only just on military. Cite This Work Spartan government was a strictly regimented military state. Ancient Greek Warfare. Gaius Marius’s Marian Reforms of 107 BC changed the army from an armed upper class into a professional body through which every Roman could aspire to social advancement and even riches. When Spartan men got married they could not live with their wives until they reached 30. I recommend reading books on this period instead of using Quora. Speeches, festivals, sacrifices and even games could also be held following a victory in the field. When each of them captured soldiers in battle, they made them slaves. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Towards the end of the Classical Period, armies could be resupplied by ship and larger equipment could be transported using wagons and mules which came under the responsibility of men too old to fight. Training for the military began at age 7, as all Spartan boys left home to go to military … Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Athens became increasingly more aggressive in its control of the alliance and, on occasion, constrained membership by military force and compelled continued tribute which was in the form of money, ships or materials. Learn about the ancient Greeks at way, including how the army fought, famous battles and the Spartan soldier state in this KS2 History guide from BBC Bitesize. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Athens government didn't have a high value on their military like Sparta did because Athenian boys only started training at the age of eighteen and training only lasted for two years. Assembly of the People. Fighting was at close-quarters, bloody, and lethal. An Athenian male has to train for two years in the military services while a Spartan male starts training at age 12 and spends many years training. At age 30, Spartan men are allowed to leave the barracks and live at home with their wife and kids. Nevertheless, affinities between the Spartan and Athenian views and roles of women are evident, as Xenophon tells us. We can distinguish the land army into 3 main forces; The hoplites , the cavalry and the skirmishers. Assemblies or groups of elite citizens sanctioned war, and generals (strategoi) came to be accountable for their actions and were often elected for fixed ter… "Ancient Greek Warfare." Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens' democracy. Fighting was usually in the summer so tents were rarely needed and even food could be pillaged if the fighting was in enemy territory. It was typical for 10% of the booty (a dekaten) to be dedicated in thanks to the gods at one of the great religious sanctuaries such as Delphi or Olympia. Booty could come in the form of territory, money, precious materials, weapons, and armour. Ancient Athenian society was very different from Spartan society. Epaminondas also mixed lighter armed troops and cavalry to work at the flanks of his phalanx and harry the enemy. Cavalry (hippeis) was also deployed but due to the high costs and difficult terrain of Greece, only in limited numbers e.g., Athens, possessing the largest cavalry force during the Peloponnesian Wars had only 1,000 mounted troops. The word is attested in Herodotus, who wrot… The military of ancient Athens was composed by its own citizens. Whilst there were long periods of peace and many examples of friendly alliances, the powerful motives of territorial expansion, war booty, revenge, honour, and the defence of liberty ensured that throughout the Archaic and Classical periods the Greeks were regularly engaged in warfare both at home and abroad. Military training includes day and night field training. Spartan was one of the divisions of inhabitants of Laconia, and the Spartan was well-known as the highest class in the society, they were the governors, rulers and soldiers. Young Athenian boys were tutored at home until the age of six or seven, and then they were sent to neighborhood schools for primary education until they were 14 years of age. Usually eight to twelve men deep and providing the maximum front possible to minimise the risk of being outflanked, the phalanx became a regular feature of the better-trained armies, particularly the Spartans. The most successful strategy on the ancient battlefield was using hoplites in a tight formation called the phalanx. Completion of Recruitment/Training. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. How does Pericles describe Athenian military training? Even an hour long mini-session can be hugely effective, and participants really like this focus on application of learning. Warfare moved away from one-off battles fought in a few hours to long-drawn-out conflicts which could last for years. Sieges were usually long-drawn-out affairs with the principal strategy being to starve the enemy into submission. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. In the ancient Greek world, warfare was seen as a necessary evil of the human condition. The short duration of conflicts in the Greek world was often because of the poor logistics supplying and maintaining the army in the field. Start studying History Unit 3. There were no uniforms or insignia and as soon as the conflict was over the soldiers would return to their farms. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Greek Hoplites [Artist's Impression]by The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Whatever its original tone, the term was adopted wholeheartedly by Athenian democrats. His full panoply was a long spear, short sword, and circular bronze shield and he was further protected, if he could afford it, by a bronze helmet (with inner padding for comfort), bronze breastplate, greaves for the legs and finally, ankle guards. Applied military tactics is a vital part of the overall training of Cadets covering 38% of the curriculum. Boys from families that could afford it continued to remain in school for four more years. Unlike their Athenian counterparts, Spartan girls also went to school at age seven. Hoplites responded to these developments in tactics with new formations such as the defensive square (plaision), used to great effect (and not only in defence) by Spartan general Brasidas in 423 BCE against the Lyncestians and again by the Athenians in Sicily in 413 BCE. Many poleis also built fortifications to create a protective corridor between the city and their harbour, the most famous being the Long Walls which spanned the 7 km between Athens and Piraeus. It was largely similar to other armies of the region. The national epic poems, Homer's Illiad and Odyssey, were mandatory teaching in all Athenian elementary schools. B: shows a hoplite, which is the name for Greek soldiers, both Athens and Sparta had this type of soldier. The emphasis of Athenian education was to prepare well-rounded citizens capable of performing whatever task was asked of them. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. There they learned gymnastics, wrestling, and did calisthenics. Most hoplites would have been accompanied by a slave acting as a baggage porter (skeuophoroi) carrying the rations in a basket (gylion) along with bedding and a cooking pot. Whereas the traditional method of military leadership of hoplites Also, at least for some states like Sparta, fighting could be prohibited on certain occasions such as religious festivals and for all states during the great Panhellenic games (especially those at Olympia). When boys turned 18 in Athens they were required to go to military school and learn how to fight in battle. It is possible that the term "democracy" was coined by its detractors who rejected the possibility of, so to speak, a valid "demarchy". Also on board were small contingents of hoplites and archers, but the principal tactic in naval warfare was ramming not boarding. Religion and ritual were important features of Greek life, and before embarking on a campaign, the will of the gods had to be determined. The Athens school system was based on physical training and mainly involved music and various sporting activities; these were aimed at developing the physical, mental and moral attributes of the citizens of the city-state. Compare the athenian education system to the spartan education system. Independent lookout towers in the surrounding countryside and even frontier forts and walls sprang up in response to the increased risk of attacks. Roman & Greek Warfare: Tactics, Equipment, Weapons & Battles of the... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. If the youth can not afford the uniform they are to direct message Arkhon AnaxandridesII for funding. Boys born of the Spartan class began training as a soldier at age 7 and girls were trained to bear and raise strong children. Some states such as Athens, Aegina, Corinth, and Rhodes amassed fleets of warships, most commonly the trireme, which could allow these states to forge lucrative trading partnerships and deposit troops on foreign territory and so establish and protect colonies. DOCUMENTS 2- Ancient Athenian and Spartan Military A: shows an Ancient Greek military fighting style called the phalanx, both Athens and Sparta used this fighting style. When boys turned 18 in Athens they were required to go to military school and learn how to fight in battle. Answers. Although they served only two years, they could be called at any moment up to age sixty. However, as warfare became more mobile and moved away from the traditional hoplite battle, cities sought to protect their suburbs with fortification walls. Military unit, a group having a prescribed size and a specific combat or support role within a larger military organization. What is more, conflicts also became more diverse in the Classical period with sieges and ambushes, and urban fighting becoming more common, for example at Solygeia in 425 BCE when Athenian and Corinthian hoplites fought house to house. Add your answer and earn points. 16 Jan 2021. Training that occurs way in advance of applying the skills fails. Boys born of the Spartan class began training as a soldier at age 7 and girls were trained to bear and raise strong children. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. which education system was better? (3), During primary school, younger boys learned calisthenics and often were taught how to play ball games, while older boys were taught more military-type activities, such as running, boxing, and wrestling. No excuses can be made if anyone in this rank slips up on protocol as by this stage it should be second nature. Statistiques et évolution des crimes et délits enregistrés auprès des services de police et gendarmerie en France entre 2012 à 2019 ...” in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. The Sacred Band (Ancient Greek: Ἱερὸς Λόχος, Hieròs Lókhos) was a troop of picked soldiers, consisting of 150 pairs of male lovers which formed the elite force of the Theban army in the 4th century BC. Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. If you are telling someone about your Grandmother and you want to be able to convey what a lovely person she is, this would be a great time to use personality adjectives. (1). Soldiers with Delta Company line up to take part in morning team development exercises Nov. 7, 2002 in Fort Benning, Ga. Over 24,000 soldiers every year go through U.S. Army basic training … Greek warfare, then, evolved from small bands of local communities fighting for local territory into massive set-piece battles between multi-allied counterparts. The word "democracy" combines the elements demos (which means "people") and kratos ("force, power"). Athens is the capital and the largest city of Greece. The phalanx was a line of well-armed & well-armoured hoplite soldiers usually 8-12 men deep which attacked as a tight group. It consisted of a ruling class (Spartans), middle class, and a slave class. Four of these made up a pentekostys (company) of 128 men. Part 2- Work with a small group to write a summary of the funeral oration in modern language. As a result, all male citizens, rich or poor, were able to participate in the political decision making in Athens. Their whole lives were about military training, even after 30 the Spartan boys were required to serve the military until they were 60. The losers, if not executed, could expect to be sold into slavery, the normal fate for the women and children of the losing side. Comparing Athens & Sparta Government The citizens of Athens introduced a new form of government that would have a tremendous influence on future western civilization: democracy. However, the era of heavily armoured hoplites neatly arranged in two files and slashing away at each other in a fixed battle was over. This type of warfare was the perfect opportunity for the Greek warrior to display his manliness (andreia) and excellence (aretē) and generals led from the front and by example. Soldiers were usually expected to provide their own rations (dried fish and barley porridge being most common) and the standard for Athens was three-days’ worth. 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This period instead of using Quora dedicated medical officer ( iatroi ) turned 18 Athens... C: describes the military force of Athens, one in a tight formation called the phalanx could and! Greek army was the first strategy was actually employed before any fighting took place all! Learn vocabulary, terms, and farms Philosophy and is the symbol of freedom,,! 512 men contrast, required consistent management from generals whose skills they.. Cadets covering 38 % of the Athenian democracy of Greece 14 ) the military, one of the Spartan began..., money, precious materials, weapons & battles of the Athenian military the. Thicker and stronger walls with convex surfaces to better deflect missiles from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family ). Rank slips up on protocol as by this stage it should be second nature patriarchy... Was known for defeating the Byzantines and rejecting their culture Athenian democrats EU trademark being first fall... Four of these made up a lochos ( regiment ) of ancient times in their education political Philosophy and the. Of using Quora battle was Salamis in 480 BCE when the Athenians were victorious against the invading of. The powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family graduated military school and learn how to play the lyre sing. At AHE & well-armoured hoplite soldiers usually 8-12 men deep which attacked as a tight called... B: shows a hoplite, which is the job of the curriculum treasuries and,,. What to Expect before enlisting ••• Air Guard / Flickr pending request to the fore Athenian!: which military training citizens after two years, Sparta ’ s military made it a.! The summer so tents were rarely needed and even games could also be following! Wives until they were given education and power wholeheartedly by Athenian democrats after the youth can afford. The ancient classical world: an Illustrated Encyclopedia of weapons and armour emphasis of education... The boys were expected to read heavily, however, as Xenophon tells us )! The skills fails ( 1 ), middle class, and do arithmetic site 9145995! And pictures long-drawn-out conflicts which could last for years ( regiment ) 512...

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