Tom Allsen, who knows as much about this as anyone, regards the Altan Debter as a collection of material or an archive, rather than as a chronicle to be compared with the Secret History (to which R al-D does not appear to have had access). There is no evidence that he knew of the Ashina, Kök Türk Empire et al. This Gardīzi, in his section on the Turkic peoples, recounts a tale in which the ‘sparseness’ of the facial hair of the Turks and their ‘canine disposition’ are attributed to the wolf’s milk (along with ant’s eggs) that was given to Japheth, the ancestor of the Turks, during a childhood illness (Gardîzî, Ta’rīḫ-i Gardīzī ed. Michigan scholar, author, photographer & publisher. Wolf's Milk is a Slime mold. With that in mind, I would like to introduce you to one of my newer discoveries: slime mold! Lycogala epidendrum (wolf's milk slime mold) Found after rains on well-rotted logs throughout the Midwest (and the rest of North America), Lycogala epidendrum is probably our continent's most frequently noticed slime mold. Examples include Lycogala epidendrum, which grows on wood and is commonly called ‘Wolf’s milk’, and Fuligo septica, often seen on wood chip mulch and sometimes called ‘Dog’s Vomit’. There are bogus legends floating around, based on Rashîd ad-Dîn. Biologists have found many uses for slime molds. UPDATE 5/31/2013. Wolf's Milk may look like a fungus, but it is actually a slime mold. The central government of a multi-ethnic country can enact laws protecting minority rights, but to enact laws punishing the criminals of a particular ethnic group that do not apply to other ethnic groups is impossible.". Upon maturing, the spheres or cushions (aethalia) will turn brown or gray before releasing spores. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Photo about Lycogala epidendrum wolf`s milk, groening`s slime - A type of mold that lives on rotten stumps. Chyi Chin has put out more than 25 albums. This is not his 1985 version but from 1997 (I think) and features some stunning guitarwork. 2 years ago. unclear-IMGP3288_20April2015. For Rašīd, who lived somewhat later – and in Iran – the same perspectives held true. His Second Section has the interesting heading “On those tribes of the Atrāk who at this time are called Muġūl.” This comes after his section on “The History of the tribes of the Oğuz” (aqwām-i Uġūz), which recounts how Oğuz Khan gave names to the Qanglï, Qïpchaq, Qarluqs and other Turkic peoples. Lycogala epidendrum, commonly known as wolf's milk, groening's slime is a cosmopolitan species of myxogastrid amoeba which is often mistaken for a fungus. If you spread out oats (slime molds’ favorite food) on a map, the slime molds will find ways to connect the sources of food with the shortest possible routes. Like this: Like Loading... Bookmark the permalink. Hence the term hanjian 'Han traitor'. Wolf's Milk Slime (Lycogala epidendrum). Posted in Lycogala epidendrum, slime-molds. In his discussion of hanjian, Yuan Weishi seems to completely overlook this historical background. Instead of praising these people, to whom they were deeply endebted, later Manchu emperors (I think it was Kangxi) placed the utmost emphasis on 'fidelity'. So, I’ve heard of slime molds before. kȫk “blue,” Clauson (1972): 708-709), as in Kök Türks, see S.G. Klyashtornyi, “The Royal Clan of the Turks and the Problem of Early Turkic-Iranian Contacts” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae XLVII/3 (1994), pp. Hampshire College has promoted a brainless slime mold to its faculty. It is this latter sense that informs the use of wolf symbolism in "Wolf Warrior. Mar 19, 2013 - Northern NJ. (Through Sogdian. My Turcologist masters (including those cited below), they know the story very well: The story belongs to the Mongols (Rashiduddin Fazlullah), but Turkish historians (from 20th century) interpret the story as Turkish! dictydium, 25x at 35mm. Spore print pinkish gray to ocher. Taxonomy - Lycogala epidendrum (Wolf's milk slime mold) (SPECIES) ))) Map to UniProtKB (7) Unreviewed (7) TrEMBL. No Comments Sign in to comment. "Growing up on wolf's milk" — when I first encountered this expression, which was applied to youth who had survived the multiple catastrophes of the first quarter-century of the PRC, I took it literally because I thought that they didn't have much of anything else to eat. Wolf’s milk slime mold. slime mold sporangium. Other Lycogala pictures (the Czech name vlcí mléko also means "wolf's milk"). Either name makes for a queezy stomach if you actually think about putting it in your mouth. For a moment I thought that maybe starving children were going out into the woods and scavenging for Lycogala epidendrum, commonly known as wolf's milk or groening's slime, which grows on damp, rotten logs from June through November. Thank you. The slime moulds can appear in the form of the ochreish cankers of the Dog Vomit, the purple pustules of the Wolf’s Milk slime (Lycogala epidendrum)], or the pink-tinged ping-pong-ball swellings of the False Puffball (Enteridium lycoperdon), before they burst in a chocolate-coloured mass of spores. A: It’s wolf milk slime mold. An additional plus: They’re naturally nonpartisan. Species ID Suggestions Sign in to suggest organism ID. Wolf's milk, a slime mold attractive to young Chinese? The above is taken from my article that has not yet appeared. As for Rashid al-Din, his info came from now lost Mongolian records that also fed into several Chinese sources, including the YUANSHI. With the aid of human research assistants, the slime mold is using the problem-solving skills it acquired over a billion years of evolution to tackle policy problems. It is pink, sub-spherical, less than 1.5 cm across, becoming pinkish brown at maturity. (This very much fits in with the culture of Hampshire College, an institution that is so liberal arts it doesn’t have “majors” and that recently hosted an event exploring “the effects of mass incarceration through dance.”). What a great title. But in recent centuries, wolf symbolism, though still retaining its traditional semantics, has also gained a more popular association with masculine nationalism through works like "Wolf Totem," which promoted the "wolf mentality" associated with Mongolians as a positive stereotype. All of this most probably goes back to Turkic oral traditions. Wolf's Milk Slime Mold The fruiting bodies of this slime mold are pink for less than a day before they turn black. The only hope in its heart is to find a larger grassland where it has better living conditions. Grows in groups on dead wood, especially large logs. Yes, of course there is evidence other than the Hexaglot that the Ilkhanids were speaking Mongol. He has always loved Mainland China, and has lived in Shanghai. So, did Rashîdu 'd-Dîn link the wolf story with the Atrâk / aqwâm-i Turk? michigan - slime mold stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. “党报社论体”和“新闻联播腔”表明，极权主义是作为一种权威语法、作为一种官方美学来统治我们的思维习惯和审美习惯的。“狼奶”是通过语言、思维和无意识变成我们血管里的“狼血”的。还有比这更“微观”、更深入的“权力技术”吗？. Slime molds are weirdly beautiful and have even inspired science fiction movies (such as "The Blob" in 1958). But when two or more slime mold cells meet, they dissolve the cell membranes that separate each individual and fuse together in one membrane. The Ilkhanids were still speaking Mongol, as the Rasūlid Hexaglot shows. When conditions change, the individuals aggregate by means of chemical signaling to form an aethalium, or fruiting body. ): Edit: Check out my dad's slime mold photos! Nonetheless, he gathered a lot of information about the different groupings – from native informants. This slime mold is not a fungus although in later stages of growth it may have the appearance of a puffball. View all posts by admin → Post navigation. Before the formation of fruiting bodies, seen above, slime molds act as a giant amoeba, gorging on its prey, think 1988 ‘The Blob’. I have been through this material numerous times and wolves appear in it only in ethno-genetic mythologies. Like this: Like Loading... Bookmark the permalink. It varies greatly in colour depending on age, from the greyish-pink colour of the immature specimens seen above to yellowish-brown or greenish-black.The cushion has a rough to warty texture, and releases a pinkish-grey paste-like flesh when popped. unclear-IMGP3282_20April2015. "Trump doesn’t have a science adviser. It is bright yellow or orange. 3,083 Likes, 44 Comments - Jill Sherman (@fashion.biologique) on Instagram: “The delightful Lycogala epidendrum, aka "Wolf's Milk," is a cosmopolitan slime mold worthy of…” They are formed when individual flagellated cells swarm together and fuse. Ḥabībī: 547, Martinez, ‘Gardîzî’s Two Chapters’: 118, Dromp, ‘Lone Wolf’: 518–19. Rashid’s history is written in Persian – our Mongolistics teacher M. Weiers – back then, hardly thinkable today – insisted that we learn Persian in order to read it, beacause it contains unique data on Chinggisid history – Rashid obviously had access to the „Altan debter“, the (presumed) original of what later became known as the „Secret History of the Mongols“ :-). Lycogala epidendrum. After all, we had all been fed on a constant diet of wolves’ milk at school. Thackston. I have spent many a happy hour watching their seemingly intelligent behaviour through a microscope. Highly selective and ideologically-driven descriptions of events leading up to the infamous razing of the Garden of Perfect Brightness (Yuanming Yuan 圆明园), the imperial Manchu demesne outside Beijing which was destroyed by Anglo-French forces in 1860, and the Boxer rebellion of 1900, were not only incorrect but, Yuan warned, serve only to inflame nationalistic passions among impressionable teenagers. Other astonishingly beautiful slime mold … there is such/similar 'fake' legends related with the wolf (kök böri / boz kurt 'gray wolf') (all are tendentious interpretations from Rashidu'd-din's Jami al-tawarix). It appears briefly when environmental conditions are just right but may not be seen again for the rest of the summer. He rose to fame in China again recently after appearing on the hit talent shows ‘I am a Singer’ and ‘The Voice of China’. Because Turkish historians (also Turcologists) "interpret" well known Mongolian story on "gray wolf" from Rashidu'd-din as "Turkish Legend". It is in turn consumed by other organisms, such as fungi, nematodes, and perhaps small insects—all at a tiny scale, at the base of the ecosystem. It took human engineers years to map out the system. :) Awesome Swim (deleted) 16y. His first guitar was a gift from his elder sister Chyi Yu, whilst he was in a teenage correction centre, and he kept on practicing during his days of military service. Of course, the AD doesn’t seem to have survived, so we only know of its contents from its use in other sources. He finds the young child in a blue rock (the color blue is also important in ancient Turkic lore) that had split in two. We include this species here because mushroom hunters and hikers see it a lot and many assume it's a fungus. slime mold fruiting bodies. It was famously used in this passage of the article by Sun Yat-Sen University professor Yuan Weishi 袁伟时 that got Freezing Point (Bingdian 冰点) magazine closed for a couple of months in January 2006 (when it reopened without editor Li Datong 李大同): 20 shìjì 70 niándài mò, zài jīnglìle "Fǎn yòupài", "Dà yuèjìn", hé "Wénhuà dàgémìng" sān dà zāinàn hòu, rénmen chéntòng de fājué, zhèxiē zāinàn de gēnyuán zhī yī shì: “Wǒmen shì chī lángnǎi zhǎngdà de.” 20 duōnián guòqùle, ǒurán fānyuè yīxià wǒmen de zhōngxué lìshǐ jiàokēshū, lìng wǒ dàchīyījīng de shì: wǒmen de qīngshàonián hái zài jìxù chī lángnǎi! There is the famous comment of Abu Shāma (d.1267) regarding the defeat of the Mongols by the Mamlūks (largely consisting of Qïpčaq ghulāms) at ‘Ayn Jālūt: “to everything there is a pest of its own kind” (he was referring to Qutuz, the Qïpčaq commander of the Mamlūk forces). Physarum polycephalum — are incredibly intelligent, capable of solving complex problems with extreme efficiency. Some slime molds, … I wrote an article on this account “A Qaračay Nart Tale of Lupine Origins: An Echo of the Ašina Tradition?” in Omeljan Pritsak Armağanı, ed. 1050, drew on accounts that went back to the 8th century (see: Czeglédy, “Gardizi on the History of Central Asia (745-780 A.D.” AOH XXVII/3 ( 1973): 257-269). This fungus is common on hardwood mulch. Slime molds are more closely related to algae than fungi. Now, because of DNA studies, slime molds are believed to be closer to the protozoa. Geoff White; thanks to Jichang Lulu]. “Slime molds are not Republicans and they are not Democrats; they’re neutral; they’re other,” says Jonathon Keats, the experimental philosopher who convinced Hampshire to promote the mold to the ranks of its faculty and who penned the letters interpreting their work. Description. Wolf’s milk slime mold. the sporangium is the fruiting body of the slime mold and produces spores. The alienating experience of living outside of China is more likely to encourage radical nationalism, since the generally negative portrayals of China in the Anglophone world combined with persistent ethnic stereotyping is likely to trigger powerful defensive reactions. Identification difficulty. Other astonishingly beautiful slime mold pictures from Taiwan here and here. 445-447. Wolf’s milk slime mold. Spores magnified are round, netted. The Japhetic origin of the Turks is a commonplace in many medieval Muslim and Jewish genealogies of the nations. having gone through the three disasters of the Anti-Rightist Campaign, the Great Leap Forward, and the Cultural Revolution, people realized in their sorrow that one of the sources of those disasters was that "we had grown up on wolf's milk". Roryrooster. There is evidence (several articles by Grigor’ev) that it was still used in some Jochid circles as well. Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold aka Toothpaste Slime Mold or Lycogala epidendrum. Slime mold develops in moist areas and feeds on decaying matter. When I got back to them a couple of days later with a camera they had changed color from pink to brown. I took this while tromping through a wetland for a course I'm taking. Habitat: On tree approximately 15 feet from house, partially shaded. myxomycetes (slime molds). Slime Moulds were once considered to be fungi but are now classified in a completely different kingdom. [Translation by Rogier Creemers on China Change.]. Or, more precisely, inspired by the very peculiar slime mold I mentioned near the beginning of this post, the adjective could be lycogalactic (concocted faux-Greek for "made of, resembling or pertaining to wolf's milk"). r/mycology would love this. Also, the Turks of his time didn't pretend to Jinghizkhanid connections, did they? The Post-90s would say, 'we grew up on toxic milk.（毒奶）' XD, Li Datong's letter protesting the closure of. I believe yours are galls and not slime molds. Format. After getting some images home and seeing them in a larger view I was puzzled by some small red balls that I noticed towards their upper left. I tend to agree with his assessment that much nationalist propaganda seems to have helped make the views of young people more intolerant and intransigent. 1, p. 114) have Chinggis descended ultimately from a wolf and a doe (the animals being humanized in R al-D’s version). Lycogala epidendrum, wolf’s milk slime mold Greenough Park, Missoula, Montana 29 June 2018 1.5M ratings 277k ratings Habitat. Add to Likebox #91702078 - Lycogala epidendrum slime mold, commonly known as wolfs milk . Discussion in a 2007 paper (pdf) by Geremie Barmé: This is no place to delve into the arcana of Yuan’s piece, suffice it to say that the well-known, and relatively outspoken, historian expressed his dismay on reading some of China’s modern history high school textbooks. This species was originally classified as a puffball, but is now recognized as the slime mold Lycogales epidendrum. Russia, September 26, 2017 Polyanskaya Doroga, Sankt-Peterburg, Russia, 197755. He finds the young child in a blue rock (the color blue is also important in ancient Turkic lore) that had split in two. Rather, it evidences their supernatural origins. More than twenty years later, as I happened to glance through one of our secondary-school history textbooks, what startled me was that our youth are still drinking wolf's milk! Wolf milk is not associated with nourishment, but hardship and toxicity; having a "wolf's heart" is another way of saying treacherous or cruel; many proverbs reference the wolf in a negative way, etc. It belongs to a group called slime molds, or myxomycetes—a group of funguslike organisms that at one time were regarded as animals, then thought to be plants, then fungi. On decaying … The aethalia, or fruiting bodies, occur either scattered or in groups on damp rotten wood, especially on large logs, from June to November. Slime mould Physarum sp. Chin see himself as a wolf – hungry, running in a remote poor land in the cold wind. There are hints, however, that the wolf tale (and wolf’s milk tales may well have circulated well before Rashîd. Popping Wolf's Milk Slime Mold (Lycogala epidendrum) - YouTube Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email (required) (Address never made public) Name (required) Website. Here's another photo of the Wolf's-milk from Tony Yang (a really talented mushroom photographer, BTW! He was called Börü Emček “Wolf Suckling” and only later took the name Örüzmek. Countless people would lose their lives in the ensuing mêlée, although today very few people will admit to being involved with murder. The instinct to survive makes a wolf cunning, tough and sometimes cruel. I suppose this kind of thinking informs the blockbuster propaganda films "Wolf Warrior" and "Wolf Warrior 2" as well, and we may perhaps refer to it as "lupine nationalism / patriotism". I took this while tromping through a wetland for a course I'm taking. As far as i know, there is not any Turkish/Turkic legend about this topic. “By way of observing what they do, [it] could be a way of getting out of our assumptions, out of our gridlock,” he says. Spores magnified are round, netted. Image of mold, slime, lycogala - 151729796 Fungi include the familiar mushroom-forming species, plus the yeasts, molds, smuts, and rusts. Dreamstime is the world`s largest stock photography community. Reading forums where young Chinese can vent their views in English, one is struck by the out-and-out intransigence (often accompanied by a lack of balance and at times helpings of ignorance) of many young commenters. June–November. Similar Images . wolfs-milk slime, lycogala epidendrum. …I seem to recall that similar stories exist for the foundation myths and legends of Turkic, Mongolic, and other Central Asia peoples…. Generally speaking, and distinct from the Roman and Mongolian mythological traditions, wolves are viewed negatively in China. What a great title. The genus was named by Micheli (Nova plantarum genera…, 1729), who explained that it means "wolf's milk" (Latin lac lupinum). Found on well-rotted wood. When slime molds are placed in a new environment, they’ll spread out in every direction in a fractal pattern, assessing the lay of the land. found on well-rotted wood. Taken to its logical conclusion, this meant condemning the traitors who had delivered the country into their hands and praising those who had steadfastly supported the Ming well into the Qing dynasty. If slime mold appears in your flower beds, don’t fret. Mehmet is correct. Both the Secret History (tr. Are there more “microscopic” or more profound “techniques of power” than these? I have no idea where it got it’s unusual name….I’ll leave it to you to make up a story that seems plausible. He says: "The term hanjian targets the Han ethnic group, but the Han did not form a separate country and have no separate autonomous regions. Primo Levi used the phrase "eating bear meat" to refer to undergoing and surviving intense physical hardship in "The Periodic Table", but I can't remember if that was a common phrase in Italian or something a friend of his said or just something he invented. This masterpiece comes from Chyi Chin's 1985 Wolf Album – the album and title song which really launched his career. common widespread slime mold. Similar Images . No need to register, buy now! They are studied for their unusual cellular characteristics. Gardīzī, although writing ca. Fuligo septica → Caution to all readers of our pdfs. Each cell of the slime mold is making decisions that ultimately benefit the whole collective. Always be cautious when eating edible mushrooms. Hehe! These slimy masses can move like giant amoeba. Well, there aren't any other pack-hunting predators in Eurasia north of the area where lions can be found, so if you want an origin story for a leader, a wolf is pretty much the only choice. But both have the wolf as the male partner; so no wolf’s milk! Most, however, manifest themselves as clusters of pinhead-like nodules on stalks. Myxogastria are now classified in the group Amoebozoa, which also includes, well, amoebae. #91177077 - Lycogala epidendrum slime mold, commonly known as wolfs milk . Wolf's Milk - Lycogala terrestre. We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. I went back to try and get a better image with more details. Yuan also cautioned that the irrational spirit guiding history teaching in China today endangers the country’s mature and rational participation in the global community. They are actually at the cutting edge of research in a variety of disciplines: "How Brainless Slime Molds Redefine Intelligence [Video]: Single-celled amoebae can remember, make decisions and anticipate change, urging scientists to rethink intelligent behavior" by Ferris Jabr, Scientific American (November 7, 2012). UPDATE 5/31/2013. Similar Images . Mature wolf's milk slime mold (Lycogala epidendrum) in a forest along the gulf in area of Lisiy Nos - Morskaya, west from Saint Petersburg. Jan 14, 2013 - “ Lycogala epidendrum or Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold ” In fact, it represented a repudiation of the Han Chinese who helped the Manchus take over China. The first photo should have been enough to keep you from wondering if this is edible. Common widespread slime mold. This slime mold resembles a tiny reddish pink puffball. Most, however, manifest themselves as clusters of pinhead-like nodules on stalks. found on well-rotted wood. Slime mold, any of about 500 species of primitive organisms containing true nuclei and resembling both protozoan protists and fungi. The names are practically the best part. Chinese posting in English forums are not necessarily representative of the whole population. Thackston, vol. I have no idea where it got it’s unusual name….I’ll leave it to you to make up a story that seems plausible. Thought it may seem like one, this species isn't actually a mushroom or fungus. Hehe! It’s harmless to you or to your plants. You may not be as happy with the photo as you like but you got to name it Wolf's-milk slime! They begin life as tiny amoeba-like organisms which hunt for bacteria to eat. Lycogala epidendrum (wolf's milk, groening's slime) - A type of mold that lives on rotten stumps – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock This fungus is common on hardwood mulch. ", I would consider the use of "wolf" symbolism in films like "Wolf Warrior" and "Wolf Warrior 2" to be of a more positive nature than the use of "wolf" symbolism in "wolf milk." 2013-06-06 Lady Slipper. Use them in commercial designs under lifetime, perpetual & worldwide rights. There's a claim that the phrase was uttered in 1979 by Deng Liqun. It lives a lonely life and is often in danger. Made me think of the phrase commonly used in English (probably strictly US, though) to describe the same phenomenon, that one has "drunk the Kool-Aid. Tameside, England, United Kingdom. Please don't look down on the lowly slime molds as unworthy of our interest. Tweet; Description: During the plasmodial stage, individuals are reddish in colour, but these are almost never seen. By marinamyra | Published October 20, 2013 | Full size is × pixels 2013-06-03 Lobaria pulmonaria. This came later with dynasties (e.g. In case he did make this ethnic distinction, whom exactly does he credit with his wolf story? quas 16y. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email (required) (Address never made public) Name (required) Website. move and engulf particles of food in an amoeboid manner. Wolf's milk is never found on alive leaves (almost always damp timber) 2. If you know the species of the leaves then it might help a lot with working out what the builder of the galls is. I have no idea where it got it’s unusual name….I’ll leave it to you to make up a story that seems plausible. Hold onto your hopes and dreams, and never give up. In the Turkic tradition, real and imagined, wolf’s milk does not have a negative role. In it was a young hero who had seized a huge wolf by the neck and was suckling from her, while birds circled about (Victor, you will recognize elements of the Wusun tale here – and the probable interaction of the Wusun and Türks). He remains very highly respected in the Chinese pop music scene. ), the coincidence one would expect from a finite number of auspicious animals being used in myths of the type. Wolf's Milk Slime Mold The fruiting bodies of this slime mold are pink for less than a day before they turn black. A: It’s wolf milk slime mold. From his personal ethnic and cultural perspective, they were apparently all the same, even if they spoke different languages …. Coverage of the reopening by David Bandurski, open letter protesting Xi Jinping's enthronement, How Brainless Slime Molds Redefine Intelligence [Video], Everything You Know About English Is Wrong. If they find something they don’t like — like direct sunlight — they’ll recoil. De Rachewiltz, p. 1) and Rashid al-Din (tr. Wildflowers, Grasses and Other Nonwoody Plants. Wolfs-milk Slime, Lycogala epidendrum. They are studied by botanists and mycologists. Wolfs Milk (Slime Mold) Lycogala epidendrum. They are in a different kingdom — the fungi. Since 20th century in Turkey (and also after 21th century in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan etc.) ‘Türk Mitlerindeki Motifler (VI.-VIII. Of course there is a story about Turks /Tujue/ in Chinese annals (Ashina) but we don't have any parallel version in Turkic sources (at inscriptions or in Divan Lugat at-Turk). Rashiduddin Fazlullah's Jamiʻuʾt-tawarikh = Compendium of chronicles: a history of the Mongols / English translation & annotation by W.M. He also has a sister called Chyi Lu. level 2. This young child grew miraculously, becoming the size of a three-year old by the time Debet reached him some minutes later. The Freezing Point article was actually a reprinting: Yuan had originally published it in 2002 in the magazine Dōngfāng wénhuà 东方文化 (Eastern Culture). The apical ancestor of Chinggis Khaan is Börte Cino-a, or Gray Wolf. the Uzbek, Crimean and Kazakh khanates), which had bona fide claims to Chinggisid descent. (most importantly) yours are actually deforming the leaves around them which a slime mold would never do. Before it is fully mature, you can pop it and a pinkish orange substance, with the texture of toothpaste, will ooze out. Wolf’s milk slime mold. Inculcated with a sense of patriotic ire through their school days, and convinced that the outside world was a malevolent enemy set on subverting China’s revolution, the Red Guards attacked all things foreign during the early months of the Cultural Revolution in 1966. Reference to Lycogala sp. My sense of his text, in this regard, as noted earlier, is that he is using “Turk”/“Atrāk” as a generic denoting what we often term – for want of a better term – the Turko-Mongolian peoples.
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